Suggested Reading

The following titles are suggested as possible sources for the the further study of the uniforms, insignia, organization and history of the Imperial Austrian Army during the period 1848-1918. This list is not exhaustive and many of the the titles are both out of print and in the German or Hungarian language. A few excellent online sources for the purchase of books are appended at the bottom of this page.

Agenten für das Doppeladler: Österreich-Ungarns Geheimer Dienst im Weltkrieg by Albert Pethö. Published by Leopold Stocker verlag 1998. 440 pages. Details the story of the Austro-Hungarian secret service during the First World War.

Adjustierungsbilder der österreichisch-ungarischen Wehrmacht by Major H. Schmid. Reprint of the 1908 uniform plates now published by LTR -Verlag 1992. Very well executed coloured prints of uniforms as at 1908. The only drawback is that the prints are rather small - about 5in x 3in and therefore the detail is not reproduced as well as could be.

Adjustierungsvorschrift für das k.u.k. Heer 1910  The official dress regulations of the Common Army published in 1910. A wonderful source of contemporary accurate illustrations and text regarding all aspects of clothing, insignia and equipment including horse furniture and even field cookers!

Adjustierungsvorschrift für die k.k. Lanswehr 1911  Similar to the above but covers the dress and personal equipment of the Austrian Landwehr in great detail. 

A Magyar Királyi Honvédseg és Csendőrség Névkönyve 1914 Published in Budapest in February 1. A 645 page tome listing all the regular and reserve officers and aspirant officers of the Hungarian Landwehr (Honvéd) and Gendarmerie just prior to the Great War. 

A Magyar Királyi Honvédseg és Csendőrség Névkönyve 1918 The The last wartime army list of the Hungarian Honvéd published in early 1918. 905 pages detailing the entire wartime officer corps of the Hungarian Landwehr including Officer-Cadets (Fähnriche).

A Military Gazetteer of Europe, 1914; Vol1: Austria-Hungary by Allan D. Satin, privately published, Cincinnati 1996. A detailed overview of the military geographical division of the empire and the locations from which units were recruited from. Very useful maps of individual corps and Landwehr, Honvéd and Landsturm recruiting areas and a gazetteer of place names in both the former and current forms.

Austro-Hungarian Infantry 1914-1918 by James Lucas. Published by Almark Publications , Wealdstone, Middlesex England 1973. A 112 page introduction to the uniforms and organisation of the infantry of the common army, Landwehr and Honved. 

The Army of Francis Joseph by Gunther Rothenberg. Published by Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Indiana 1998. A balanced overview of the Austro-Hungarian army from the time of Franz Josef's accession to the throne. Both a Military and political history. Not illustrated.

The Battle of Königgrätz: Prussia's Victory over Austria 1866 by Gordon A Craig. Published by J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia & New York 1964. A good account of the fighting in Bohemia. Illustrated with maps.

Beyond Nationalism: A Social & Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps 1948-1918 by István Deák. Published the Oxford University Press Inc., New York 1990. A very interesting and readable account of the selection, training and lives of the officer corps of the Dual Monarchy. Excellent notes and a detailed list of further sources.

Blaukreuz: Die Isonzofront, Flitsch/Bovec 1915-1917 by Vasja Klavora. Published by Verlag Hermagoras/Mohorjeva, Klagenfurt, Ljubljana and Vienna 1993. A well illustrated book recounting the fighting on the Northern sector of the Isonzo front from the outbreak of the war with Italy until the Caporetto offensive in 1917.

The Campaign of 1848 in Lombardy. Small booklet published by Helion & Company, Solihull, England. A photocopied reprint of a series of articles originally appearing in the United Service Magazine in 1859. Despite its rather rudimentary production it is one of the few available sources on this campaign in English.

Col di Lana by Generalmajor Viktor Schemfil. Published by Verlag Treusch, Bregenz 1935. The story of the fighting for the Col di Lana position in the Dolomite Mountains from 1915-1917.

The Collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by Edmund von Glaise-Horstenau and published by J.M. Dent and Sons Limited, London and Toronto 1930. A very detailed history of the final military and political events leading to the collapse of the empire by the then head of the War Archives in Vienna. Illustrated with black and white photos.

Das Eiserne Verdienstkreuz by Jörg C. Steiner. Small 50 page booklet published by Edition S&H, Vienna 1992 describing in detail the award criteria, the actual award and the first recipients of the Iron Merit Cross. Illustrated throughout with black and white photographs.

Das k.u.k. 3. Regiment der Tiroler Kaiserjäger im Weltkrieg 1914-1918 by Viktor Schemfil. Published by Teutsch Verlag, Bregenz 1926. Covers in great detail the history of the 3rd Regiment of Tyrolean Kaiserjäger. Many orders of battle and lists of award winners plus detailed maps.

Das K.u.K. Heer im Jahre 1895 Edited by Günther Dirrheimer and published by Leopold Stocker Verlag 1997. This book contains uniform text by the editor and a set of 34 coloured plates of all the branches of the Common Army in 1895 by the talented military artist Oskar Bruch. Although painted about twenty years prior to the outbreak of the war they still give an accurate depiction of the service dress of the cavalry and the parade dress of the other arms as at 1914.

Der k.u.k. Wüstenkrieg: Österreich-Ungarn im Vorderen Orient 1915-1918 by Peter Jung. Published by Verlag Styria. Details the history of the Austro-Hungarian personnel who served in the middle East. 200 pages with maps.

Das Ordensbuch der gewesenen Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie by Hauptmann Heinrich Michetschläger. Originally published in Vienna in 1918/1919 and republished by PHV Phalereristischer Verlag Michael Autengruber, Offenbach am Main 1998. A very detailed and beautifully illustrated work with 26 full coloured plates which show just about every variation of every order including the bewildering variations of War and "Kleine" Decorations.

Der deutsche Krieg von 1866 by Theodor Fontane. Published by the Fontane Bibliothek, Frankfurt am Main 1984. This is the two volume paperback reprint of Fontane's history of the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. Very detailed with hundreds of illustrations and maps.

Der Kaiserlich Österreichische Franz Josef Orden und seine Mitglieder A massive volume produced just after the turn of the century listing the then living members holding the various grades of the Franz Joseph Order. Illustrated throughout and contains many short biographies. 388 pages 

Der k.u.k. Hofstaat 1858-1918 by Jörg C. Steiner. Published by Album Verlag, Vienna 1997. Extremely interesting and well illustrated album covering the leading members of the House of Habsburg, the court, adjutants, ADCs etc. Illustrated throughout with clear black and white photographs. 120 pages.

Der Oberste Kriegsherr und Sein Stab By Alexander Duschnitz. Monumental work produced in 1908 detailing hundreds of senior k.u.k. military officers with their biographies and portraits. Very rare!

Der letzte Paladin des Reiches; GO Stefan Freiherr Sarkotić von Lovćen by Ernest Bauer. Published byVerlag Styria1988. The life of Colonel General von Sarkotić covered in some detail including his period as the commander in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the capture of the Lovcen and the defeat of Macedonia. Excellent photographs.

Die Bosniaken Kommen 1879-1918: Elitetruppe in der k.u.k. Armee by Werner Schachinger. Published by Leopold Stocker Verlag 1989. Excellent history of the Bosnian regiments of the A-H Army. Illustrated throughout with photos and maps. 360 pages.

Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848-1918: Band V: Die Bewaffnete Macht Edited by Adam Wandruszka and Peter Urbanitsch and published by the Verlag der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Vienna 1987. A very detailed overview of the organisation of the armed forces of the Monarchy with some 864 pages plus coloured maps. Available from the Austrian Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Der Militär-Maria Theresien-Orden - Die Auszeichnungen im Weltkrieg 1914-1918 by General Karl von Bardolff, General Oskar von Hofmann and Colonel Gustav von Hubka. Published by Verlag "Militärwissenschaftliche Mitteilungen", Vienna 1944. A very detailed work covering the holders of the MMTO with biographies, photographs and details of the action which won the award of all 131 recipients. Unfortunately quite scarce.

Die Dolomitenfront 1915/17 A 1:50 000 Scale map of the Dolomite mountains published by Kompass. A modern map showing the positions of 1915/17. It is accompanied by a small booklet detailing the fighting in this area.

Die Einser Kaiserjäger im Feldzug gegen Rußland 1914-1915 by Hauptmann Karl von Raschin. Published by Teutsch Verlag, Bregenz 1935. The war diary of Hauptmann Karl von Raschin who served with the 1st regiment of Tyrolean Kaiserjäger during the fighting in Galicia during the first year of the war. Illustrated with many photos and maps this is a detailed overview by the one time regimental adjutant.

Die Kämpfe am Monte Piano und im Cristallo-Gebiet 1915-1917 by Generalmajor Viktor Schemfil. Published by Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 1984. The history of the fighting around Monte Piano on the Northeastern sector of the Dolomite front.

Die Kämpfe im Drei Zinnen-Gebiet und am Kreuzberg in Sexten 1915-1917 by Generalmajor Viktor Schemfil. Published by Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 1986. The history of the fighting on the Northeastern sector of the South Tyrolean front.

Die K.(u.)K.-Armee 1848-1914 by Doctor Johann Christoph Freiherr von Allmayer-Beck and Erich Lessing. Published by Prisma Verlag. A large, colourful and extremely well illustrated overview of the history of the campaigns and day to day life of the Army of the Monarchy from the time of the accession of Kaiser Franz Joseph to the outbreak of the First World War.

Die k.u.k. Sturmtruppen 1916-1918: Elitesoldaten der Monarchie By Christian Ortner. Published by Verlagsbuchhandlung Stöhr, Vienna 1998. Excellent booklet detailing the development and employment of the assault battalions of the Austro-Hungarian Army in the latter part of World War One. Illustrated with black and white photographs of personnel and badges and contemporary illustrations from the regulations. 72 pages.

Die letzte Reiterschlacht der Weltgeschichte (Jaroslawice 1914) by Feldmarschalleutnant Max von Hoen and Oberst Egon Freiherr von Waldstätten. Published by Amalthae-Verlag, Zurich, Leipzig and Vienna 1929. The account of a large scale cavalry engagement between the Austro-Hungarian 4th Cavalry Division and the Russian 10th Cavalry Division at Jaroslawice in the opening rounds of the Galician campaign in August 1914. Complete with detailed maps.

Das Luftfahrerabzeichen by Jörg C. Steiner. A 114 page booklet published by Edition S&H in Vienna which describes in detail the qualification badges for the observers and captive balloon crews of the Austro-Hungarian Air Service. Very thorough treatment illustrated with clear photographs.

Die Militär-Dienstzeichen  Volume 7 in Jörg C. Steiner's series of booklets dealing with Austro-Hungarian Military Themes. Published by Edition S&H in Vienna this volume covers long service awards and dress distinctions worn for long service. Illustrated throughout with black and white photographs and line illustrations from official regulations.

Der Oesterreichisch-Kaiserliche Orden der Eisernen Krone und seine Mitglieder A huge tome published in 1912 in Vienna detailing the holders of the Austrian Iron Crown both military and civil. Many of the holders have photos and biographical information. A complete list of all members of the order by year of award from its inception to the date of publication is included.

Die Pasubio-Kämpfe by Generalmajor Viktor Schemfil. Published by Verlag: Buchdienst Südtirol E. Kienesberger. Reprint of the 1936 edition. The story of the severe fighting around Monte Pasubio from 1916 to 1918.

Die Rang- und Distinktionsabzeichen in der K.u.K. Armee by Jörg C. Steiner 1992. Excellent little booklet detailing all the various collar rank insignia of the army plus the rank insignia of the navy. Well illustrated with period line drawings and clear photographs.

Die Tiroler Kaiserjäger Published by Persico Europe, Cremona, Italy 1996. An extremely useful booklet (240 pages) on the history of the Tyrolean rifle regiments. Much information on the Great War including engagement history, uniforms, insignia weapons, orders and decorations, many of the illustrations being in colour. Excellent value.

Die Tiroler Kaiserjäger im Weltkrieg 1914-1918 by Major a.D. Ernst Wißhaupt. Published by Verlagsanstalt Amon Franz Göth, Vienna 1935. The two volume official history of the four regiments of  Kaiserjäger during the war. Extensive order of battle information and detailed accounts of the numerous actions fought in the East and on the Southwestern front. 

Die Zöglinge der Wiener-Neustädter Militär-Akademie von der Gründung des Institutes bis auf unsere Zeit by Johann Svoboda, Vienna 1870. First published in 1870 as a single volume, a further three volume history was published in 1984 with yet more supplemental volumes thereafter up to the conclusion of the First World War. Pocket biographies of all the graduates of the Wiener-Neustadt Military Academy.

Ein General im Zwielicht: Die Erinnerungen Edmund Glaises von Horstenau Edited by Peter Broucek. The memoirs of General von Glaise. A very interesting three volume series, the first of which covers life in the Austro-Hungarian Army in the early 1900s and then the author's experiences as a staff officer during the war. Of particular note are the many capsule biographies of dozens of A-H officers giving career details and promotions. Published by Hermann Böhlau, Vienna 1980.

The Eastern Front 1914-1917 by Norman Stone. Published by Penguin Books 1998. Probably the best overview of the fighting in the East in the English language. Illustrated with maps.

Ehrenbuch der österreichisch-ungarischen Wehrmacht: Die Ausgezeichneten im Weltkrieg I. Band Published by the k.und k. War Archives in Vienna 1917. A beautiful book which not only lists the holders of all the decorations by rank and unit from the outbreak of the war until the end of July 1915 but also includes 16 full colour plates of the decorations plus the statutes for each award.

Ergänzungsheft 9 zum Werke Österreich-Ungarns Letzter Krieg: Die österreichisch-ungarische Landmacht nach Aufbau, Gliederung, Friedensgarnison, Einteilung und nationaler Zusammensetzung im Sommer 1914 by Oberst Maximilian Ehnl. Supplement volume 9 to the official history. A most useful booklet of some 104 pages listing the land units of the peacetime army and both Landwehrs just prior to the outbreak of the war. Not only does it list subordination by corps, division and brigade but also garrison locations, recruiting district and national composition of the NCOs and private soldiers.

Fighting Troops of the Austro-Hungarian Army 1868-1914 by James Lucas.Published in the UK by Spellmount Limited and in the USA by Hippocrene Books in 1987. A large format guide to the uniforms and organisation of the common army and both Landwehrs. Some very nice coloured plates by amongst others Bruch, Pock, Karger and Ruhl. Little on the actual wartime employment of the army.

Fortitudini: Der tapferkeit An interesting little book published by the Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ordenskunde with many details on the awarding of the Military Maria Theresia Order and the Gold, Silver and Bronze Bravery Medals.

Generaloberst Viktor Dankl by Ludwig von Pastor published by Herder Verlag, Vienna 1916. A relatively small  contemporary account of the life of the "Victor of Krasnik".

Geschichte des Feldzuges 1866 in Italien by Hauptmann Alexander Hold, published by Carl Gerold's Sohn 1867. A detailed history of the Custoza and South Tyrolean campaigns in the summer of 1866. Detailed maps and appendices. Apparently an English translation of at least part of this book has been published by Stuart Sutherland of Iser Books.

Geschichte der K. und K. Wehrmacht by Major Alphons Freiherr von Wrede. Republished in1985 by LTR Verlag GmbH, Starnberg . A reprint of the monumental organisational history of the Austro-Hungarian land forces originally published between 1898 and 1905. It details on a regiment by regiment basis from about 1618 onwards every unit of the land forces including all engagements, commanders, losses of senior officers and lineage. Extremely detailed work which unfortunately does not cover the period 1914-1918.

Handbook of the Austro-Hungarian Army in War June 1918 Published jointly by the Imperial War Museum in London and Battery Press Inc. 1994. A reprint of a 1918 allied intelligence manual. Useful for much of its detail but like all intelligence publications should not be taken as gospel.

Heerwesen 2. Teil. Österreich-Ungarn by Hugo Schmidt, Vienna 1917. A detailed semi-official publication produced for the instruction of reserve officer aspirants which includes tables of organization, details on uniforms and chapters on the individual arms of service and the fleet.

Heldenwerk A huge four volume series produced during and immediately after the First World War and published the Austrian Ministry of the Interior. Deals with the numerous fronts and campaigns but most of the book is devoted to the holders of gallantry awards including the MMThO, the Iron Crown, Military Merit Cross etc. Biographical details of hundreds of recipients plus their photographs. Also included are many full page portrait pictures in colour of prominent A-H military figures.

Illustriertes Österreichisch-Ungarisches Ehrenbuch: Almanach der Mitglieder des kaiserlichen-österreichischen Franz Josef Orden Published in Vienna 1909. At 200 pages a smaller book concerning the Franz Joseph Order. Includes additional recipients to the title mentioned above.

Isonzo: The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War by John R. Schindler and published by Praeger, Westport, CT, 2001. A superb account of the epic battles fought on the Austro-Italian border from 1915 culminating in the Austro-German offensive at Caporetto in October 1917. A balanced account that pays just tribute to the qualities of both sides fighting men in this most under reported theatre of operations. Illustrated with present day black and white photographs of the battles. Highly recommended.

Jews in the Habsburg Armed Forces by Doctor Erwin A. Schmidl. A very interesting little book in both English and German published by the Österreichisches Jüdisches Museum Eisenstadt 1989. A detailed overview of the part played by the Jewish citizens of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy illustrated with some fine black and white photographs.

Kaiserjäger - Ruhm und Ende by Anton Graf Bossi-Fedrigotti. Published by Leopold Stocker Verlag, Graz 1977. A history of the Kaiserjäger regiments with specific regard to the career of Oberst von Cordier. Some nice detail with good photographs, maps and documents.

Kaiserschützen Tiroler-Voralberger Landsturm und Standschützen Edited by the Kaiserschützenbund für Österreich 1932. A large format well illustrated history of the Landesschützen/Kaiserschützen, Landsturm and Standschützen with much excellent detail on regimental commanders, award winners, campaign histories and traditions in the post war period.

Királyért és Hazáért by Barcy Zoltan and Somogyi Győző. Published by Cortina, Budapest. An extremely useful and detailed book in Hungarian with German captions of the colour plates. The entire development of the Hungarian Landwehr's uniforms from 1868 - 1918 are reproduced in colour plates.

Krieg in den Alpen 1915-1918 by Heinz von Lichem. Published by Weltbild Verlag 1993. Three volume history of the alpine fighting on the southwestern front from 1915-1918. Well illustrated with black and white photographs and maps. Includes contemporary guide information.

K.(u.)k. Hoch-und Deutschmeister: "222 Jahre für Kaiser und Reich" by Edmund Finke. Published by Leopold Stocker Verlag, Graz and Stuttgart 1978. Very well illustrated and large book dealing with the history of Infantry Regiment Number 4 from its founding period and its traditions in the Austrian Bundesheer and German Wehrmacht.

Le Armi E Gli Equipaggiamenti dell 'Esercito Austro-Ungarico dal 1914 al 1918: Uniformi - Distintivi - Buffetterie Volume 1 & 2 by Siro Offelli. Published by Gino Rossato Editore 2001. A wonderfully illustrated and produced pair of books in the Italian language detailing the uniforms, insignia and personal equipment of the Austro-Hungarian Army from 1914-1918. Magnificent colour photography of uniform items. 230 & 238 pages respectively. The Austrian distributor, Stöhr will provide a German language supplement.

Militärischer Maria Theresien-Orden by J Lukes. Published by the k.k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerie in Vienna 1891. The history of the MMTO from 1850 until 1890 with all the recipients pictured. A very detailed and very rare book.

Orden und Ehrenzeichen der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie  by Václav Meřička.  Published by Verlag Anton Schroll & Co, Vienna and Munich 1974. Beautifully illustrated and detailed work depicting the orders and decorations of the Monarchy. Sadly out of print.

Österreichs Kämpfe im Jahre 1866 edited by the Austrian General Staff in Vienna in 1869. The official Austrian Staff history of the war of 1866 covering both the campaigns in Bohemia and in Northern Italy. Five volumes with extremely detailed maps and order of battle of information. Quite rare and unlike the Prussian Staff histories never translated into English.

Österreichs Schlachtfelder (Band 4) by Arndt Preil. Published by Herbert Weishaupt Verlag, Graz, 1993. A colourful and well illustrated account of four battles during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866: Trautenau, Nachod, Skalitz and Königgrätz. Includes information on uniforms and biographies of the more important personalities.

Österreich-Ungarns Letzter Krieg edited under the direction of Edmund Glaise-Horstenau and published by the Verlag der Militärwissenschaftlichen Mitteilungen in Vienna 1930 onwards. The official history of the Austro-Hungarian army in the Great War: 7 Volumes plus 7 volumes of maps, tables of organisation etc and and a further index volume. Magnificent.

Österreichs Volksbuch vom Weltkrieg by Generalmajor Hugo Schäfer. Published by Verlag GM. d.R. Franz Schubert, Vienna 1934. A very interesting and useful military history of Austria-Hungary's participation in the First World War. Particularly useful is the way in which the actions of individual corps and divisions are reported.  376 pages plus many black and white photographs and detailed maps. An index of regimental histories is also appended.

Potiorek: General im Schatten von Sarajevo by Rudolf Jerabek. Published by Verlag Styria 1991. 239 pages. Details the history of Feldzeugmeister Potiorek the commanding General in Sarajevo at the time of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and later commander of A-H troops during the invasion of Serbia.

Ranglisten des k.und.k Heeres 1918 The last wartime Rangliste of the Common Army published probably in June 1918. 2286 pages detailing the entire wartime officer corps of the Common Army including Officer-Cadets (Fähnriche).

Ranglisten der k.k. Landwehr und der Gendarmerie 1918 Published in Vienna in 1918 by the k.k. Hof -und Staatsdruckerei.777 pages detailing the entire wartime officer corps of the Austrian Landwehr as at 1918 including Officer-Cadets (Fähnriche).

Schematismus für das K.u.K.Heer und für die K.u.K. Kriegsmarine für 1914 Published in Vienna in February 1914 by the K.K. Hof -und Staatsdruckerei. A 1579 page tome listing all the regular and reserve officers and aspirant officers of the common army and the navy just prior to the Great War. Extremely useful for the order of battle information of all corps, divisions and brigades with a peacetime dislocation map in the rear.

Schematismus der Generale und Obersten der K.u.K. Armee - Stand: 31. Dezember 1918 edited by Jörg C. Steiner. Published by Edition S&H Vienna 1992. Rank list of the general officers and colonels of the common army, Landwehr, Honvéd and Gendarmerie as at December 1918. Included is a list of general officers and colonels killed in action.

Schematismus der k.k. Landwehr und der k.k. Gendarmerie der im Reichsrate vetretende Königreiche und Länder fü 1914 Published in Vienna in 1914 by the k.k. Hof -und Staatsdruckerei. The last peacetime Landwehr and Gendarmerie army list of "the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Reichsrat" i.e.. the Austrian half of the Dual Monarchy. A 598 page book listing all the regular and reserve officers and aspirant officers with a dislocation map in the rear.

Sechzig Jahre Wehrmacht 1848-1908 edited by the Kriegsarchiv in Vienna 1908. A wonderful large book packed with line drawings, photographs and colour plates detailing the history of all branches of the Dual Monarchy.

Seidels kleines Armeeschema; Dislokation und Einteilung des k.u.k. Heeres, der k.u.k Kriegsmarine, der k.k. Landwehr und der königlich ungarischen Landwehr 1912 & 1914. A concise series of rank and garrison lists which have the advantage of combining all of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy's Forces in one volume. Published by L.W. Seidel and Son, Vienna.

Spielhahnstoß und Edelweiß by Heinz von Lichem. Published by Leopold Stocker Verlag, Graz, Austria 1977. The history of the famous mountain troops of the k.k.landwehr - The Landesschützen, later Kaiserschützen regiments. Good, well illustrated history with some excellent maps and reproduced documents. Good clear photographs detailing the kaiserschützen insignia.

Standschützen: Die Tiroler und Voralberger k.k. Standschützen-Formationen im Ersten Weltkrieg by Wolfgang Joly, published by Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 1998. A very detailed history of the Tyrolean and Voralberg territorial rifle clubs which formed defence battalions in the Great War. Excellent mapping and order of battle information.

Standschützen verteidigen Tirol 1915-1918 by Anton von Mörl. Published by the Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 1958. The history of the Tyrolean Standschützen during WW1 as written by a former officer of that organisation.

Streffleurs Militärblatt A weekly gazette produced throughout the war similar to the London Gazette in which promotions, awards and other personnel matters were published for the Common Army, the two Landwehrs and the Gendarmerie in separate supplements but bound together. At the end of each week a narrative of events on the various fronts was appended for the previous week.

The Emperor's Coat By Stefan Rest, Christian Ortner and Thomas Illming. A super work beautifully illustrated with colour photographs and period black and white illustrations and prints detailing the uniforms of the common army and Austrian Landwehr at the outbreak of and during the First World War. By far the best book on this subject in the English language. Also available in German under the title " Des Kaisers Rock".

Tiroler Kaiserjäger im Weltkrieg by Guido Jakoncig, published by Universitäts-Verlag Wagner, Innsbruck 1935. A photo history of the four Tyrolean rifle regiments.

Uniformen und Abzeichen der österreich-ungarischen Wehrmacht by Oberst M Judex. Originally published between 1884 and 1909 and republished by Buchholz-Sprötze in 1996. Describes both the peacetime and newly introduced pike-grey service uniforms of the entire armed forces including the Landwehr and the navy. Included are 27 schematic plates of uniforms, insignia, flags etc. A very comprehensive and contemporary accurate source.

Uniformen und Blankwaffen der Staatsbeamten und der Bundesbeamten 1848-1938 by Jörg C. Steiner. Published by Edition S&H in Vienna 1992. This 274 page booklet covers the relatively unknown subject of the uniforms, sidearms and rank insignia of the members of Government Ministries, Railways, Customs etc. Well illustrated with contemporary black and white photographs and line drawings from the official regulations.

Uniformen-Handbuch der Gesamten Bewaffneten Macht by Jörg C. Steiner and M.C. Ortner. Published by Edition S&H Vienna, 1993. A very detailed summary of the uniforms of all branches of the Austro-Hungarian forces as at 1914. Very well illustrated with photographs and the Judex plates mentioned above.

Unser Heer. 300 jahre österr. Soldatentum published by Herbert St. Fürlinger 1963. A very good overview of the history of the Austrian Army including the Bundesheer and including details of the transfer of the Bundesheer into the German Wehrmacht. 547 pages.

Vae Victis: The Life of Ludwig von Benedek by John Presland. Published by Hodder & Stoughton, London 1934. A sympathetic account of FZM Benedek's military career culminating in his defeat at Königgrätz in 1866. Illustrated with maps and engravings.

Vier Jahre als Infanterist im I. Weltkrieg: Edited by Doctor Alois Schreiber 1998. The war diary of Josef Schreiber an infantryman in Landwehr/Schützen-Regiment number 11. A very interesting little book with a full index of names, some photographs and illustrations of badges of rank.

Von Theresien-Rittern 1914-1918 by Oberst d.R. Richard Fried. Steyermühl Verlag, Vienna 1935. A small 80 page booklet listing the holders of the MMTO and some selected actions of those that won the order.

The War on the Italian Front by Luigi Villari, published by Cobden-Sanderson, London 1932. A good history of the war in Italy from 1915 to 1918. Although primarily written from the Italian perspective, it gives a good view of an otherwise very much under-reported theatre in the English language. Illustrated with black and white photos and fold out maps. 308 pages. Rare!

In addition several regimental histories are still available second hand. Although many regimental histories were written prior to the First World War, those dealing with the war itself tend to be just those of the predominantly German regiments within the empire i.e. IR.4, IR. 7, IR.14, IR.27, IR. 42, IR. 47, IR.49, IR.59, IR.73, IR. 84, IR.94 etc. and the Kaiserjäger and Austrian Landwehr. Also useful are the articles to be found in the Deutsches Soldatenjahrbuch published annually which contain many articles on A-H military history.

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